Programming the Cerebral Cortex: from Cortical Development to Cortex in the Dish
Paola Arlotta (Harvard Stem Cell Institute, MA, USA)
The neocortex contains an unparalleled diversity of neuronal subtypes, each defined by distinct traits that are developmentally acquired under the control of several neuron subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that orchestrates the coordinated expression of these unique combinations of genes is not known for any class of cortical neurons. I will discuss recent work on the identification of novel transcriptional dynamics underlying developmental generation of excitatory pyramidal neuron diversity in the cerebral cortex, and highlight some new governing principles that regulate interactions among pyramidal neuron classes, with a particular emphasis on oligodendrocytes and regulation of myelination. Finally, I will discuss new work aimed at modeling development and disease of the human cerebral cortex, in 3D cerebral organoids generated from human pluripotent stem cells
Vendredi 30 septembre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.
Unraveling the role of C-fibers in responding to inflammatory and nutritional challenges
Laurent Gautron (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA)
Physiological homeostasis is monitored and maintained by a complex system of neurons, including peripheral sensory neurons, which convey information from metabolic tissues to the brain. Of particular importance are Nav1.8-expressing afferents (C-fibers) which serve as a critical link between peripheral nutrient sensing and centrally mediated physiological responses. My laboratory is interested in the physiological requirements for Nav1.8-expressing neurons in regulating metabolic inflammation. Furthermore, we examine how inflammatory insults and high-fat feeding affects the anatomical integrity of Nav1.8-expressing neurons supplying the gastrointestinal tract, with a special emphasis on the role played by bacterial endotoxins and the Toll-like receptor 4. Together, these studies will increase our understanding of the biological control of energy balance, feeding and metabolic inflammation and will provide mechanistic insights to the pathophysiology of obesity-associated neuropathies
Vendredi 7 octobre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.
Putting sensory back into voluntary control
Stephen Scott (Queen’s University, Canada)
Optimal feedback control can explain many features of biological movement, such as success with variability, motor synergies and goal-directed behavior. The lecture will describe the use of optimal control to interpret motor performance, highlighting the importance of sensory feedback in this process. My talk will highlight how simple mechanical disturbances applied to the limb can uncover a range of sophisticated feedback processes, including knowledge of limb mechanics, scaling to spatial target location, avoidance of obstacles and selection of alternate goals. As well, I will highlight how sensory and motor cortices participate in this online control
Vendredi 4 novembre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.
titre à venir
Till Marquardt (European Neuroscience Institute Göttingen, Germany)
Vendredi 25 novembre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.
Is it time for immunopsychiatry?
Marion Leboyer (Institut Mondor, Créteil, France)
Vendredi 2 décembre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.
From exploration to fixation: how eye movements determine what we see
Susana Martinez-Conde (State University of New York, USA)
Vision depends on motion: we see things either because they move or because our eyes do. What may be more surprising is that large and miniature eye motions help us examine the world in similar ways - largely at the same time. In this presentation, I will discuss recent research from my lab and others suggesting that exploration and gaze-fixation are not all that different processes in the brain. Our eyes scan visual scenes with a same general strategy whether the images are huge or tiny, or even when we try to fix our gaze. These findings indicate that exploration and fixation are not fundamentally different behaviors, but rather two ends of the same visual scanning continuum. They also imply that the same brain systems control our eye movements when we explore and when we fixate - an insight that may ultimately offer clues to understanding both normal oculomotor function in the healthy brain, and oculomotor dysfunction in neurological disease
Vendredi 9 décembre 2016 à 11h30, Salle de conférence.